"Architecture" can mean:
- The art and science of design and erecting buildings and other physical structures.
- A general term to describe buildings and other infrastructures.
- A style and method of design and construction of buildings and other physical structures.
- The practice of an architect, where architecture means to offer or render professional services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings, that have as their principal purpose human occupancy or use.
- Design activity, from the macro-level (urban design, landscape architecture) to the micro-level (construction details and furniture).
- The term "architecture" has been adopted to describe the activity of designing any kind of system, and is commonly used in describing information technology.
- Durability – it should stand up robustly and remain in good condition.
- Utility – it should be useful and function well for the people using it
- Beauty – it should delight people and raise their spirits.
Ancient architecture~Civilizations such as that of Egypt and Mesopotamia
|The Pyramids at Giza|
|Kinkaku-ji (Golden Pavilion), Kyoto, Japan|
|The Taj Mahal (1632–1653), in India|
|Notre Dame de Paris, France|
|La Rotonda (1567), Italy by Palladio|
|Paris Opera by Charles Garnier (1875), France|
|Fallingwater, Organic architecture |
by Frank Lloyd Wright.
|The Crystal Cathedral, California|
by Philip Johnson (1980)
Architecture today~Part of the architectural profession, and also some non-architects, responded to Modernism and Postmodernism.Starting in the 1980s and into the new millennium, the field of architecture saw the rise of specializations for each project type, technological expertise or project delivery methods.There has been an increased separation of the 'design' architect from the 'project' architect.Moving the issues of environmental sustainability into the mainstream is a significant development in the architecture profession.Sustainability in architecture was pioneered in the 1960s by architects such as Buckminster Fuller, Frank Lloyd Wright, Sim Van der Ryn, in the 1970s Ian McHarg in the US and Brenda and Robert Vale in the UK and New Zealand.Sustainable practices that were at the core of vernacular architecture increasingly provide inspiration for environmentally and socially sustainable contemporary techniques.The U.S. Green Building Council's LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) rating system has been instrumental.An example of an architecturally innovative green building is the Dynamic Tower which will be powered by wind turbines and solar panels.
|L'Historial de la Vendée, |
in western France
(Green roof planted with native species)
|Gare do Oriente, Lisbon, Portugal|
by Santiago Calatrava